Heat & Warming Elements

Controlled Heating Through Printed Electronics

Our roll and sheet manufacturing, in combination with our range of materials and printing capabilities, allows Nissha GSI to create printed heating and warming elements for a variety of surface materials and functionalities. Our experience includes fully printed resistive heating elements with conductive low resistance traces and unique high resistance arrays for heating surface applications, self temperature controlling heaters utilizing positive-temperature-coefficient (PTC) technology, and print thermocouples to measure temperature. By leveraging dimensional controls and ink compositions, these products offer precise resistance specifications without the need for resistor trimming. Printed PTC heaters have found wide acceptance in markets such as Automotive, Healthcare, Food Services, and Consumer Goods. Nissha GSI has served many customer designs including:

  • Automotive seat heating
  • Heaters to aid in surgical healing and recovery
  • Patient therapeutic comfort heaters
  • Food temperature control containers
  • Battery testers
  • Deicing systems
  • Apparel

Nissha GSI offers complimentary working sample sheets of our printed heater circuitry for you to test the innovative power of printed electronics. Request a sheet delivered to you.

Static Resistive Heating Technology

Nissha GSI will produce custom designed flexible heating elements with highly conductive electric bus delivering uniform power to individualized point-resistive heaters or to a uniform resistive heating layer. Resistive materials are stable across temperature regions and fully printed without laser trimming.

Positive-Temperature-Coefficient (PTC) Technology

Printed flexible heaters are produced at Nissha GSI in high volume using positive-temperature-coefficient (PTC) resistors. These constructions may be designed to operate in a steady state or self-limiting modes to achieve desired temperatures. PTC technology can self regulate operational temperature due to resistance changes with temperature. The current draw of the heater decreases as the heater warms and eventually reduces such that the heater will no longer maintain temperature. As the system cools, the current will rise again, causing the heater to maintain an operational temperature. Some of the capabilities Nissha GSI has to offer include:

  • Self-regulating heaters for temperatures of 40°C, 60°C, and 80°C
  • Unique item-level identification with 100% electrical testing
  • All heaters based on customer designs
  • High-quality uniform heaters with real time online statistical process control
  • Integration of thermochromic layers to identify temperature change

Nissha GSI Printed Heater Advantages


Long-standing relationships with key material, technology, and equipment suppliers enable us to give you consistent quality at competitive prices.


The printed heater technology has been successfully scaled into automotive and healthcare products. Millions of Nissha GSI heaters are installed today in applications which require stable, long-term performance.


Prototype heaters are easily created and fully scalable to roll or sheet-based high volume processing. Production equipment has 100% electrical testing with integrated real-time statistical process control to ensure uniform product is continuously produced.


A full range of conductive, resistive, and positive-temperature-coefficient (PTC) inks are available. Base substrates are typically polymer film, but paper materials are also available.

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